A total of 66.2% of salaried employees in Egypt has permanent jobs. The ratio reaches 87.7% among female employees, and 62.6% among males, the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) has announced.
The figures, which are based on 2019 data, came as part of a press statement, on Tuesday, to mark World Day for Decent Work, which is celebrated on 7 October every year.
The international day marks the 2008 decision by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) to enhance the idea of decent work, to ensure that employees receive their main rights, especially regarding decent work and dignity.
The concept of decent work refers to the enhancement of opportunities for all to gain productive careers with freedom, equity, security and dignity status. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), this includes adequate employment, fair wages, social security for families, better opportunities for individual development. This also affects social inclusion, and employees’ participation in decisions that affect their lives, alongside the achievement of equal opportunities, as well as equal treatment for men and women.
In Egypt, the total labour force, aged 15 and above, reached 42.2% of the country’s total population in 2019.
A significant disparity was noted, in 2019, between male and female participation rates in economic activity. The male labour force participation rate reached 67.3% compared to 15.6% for females, reflecting that Egyptian males are four times more likely to be in work than women. Data also shows that this disparity is the dominant pattern in the Egyptian labour market.
CAPMAS revealed that Egypt’s employment rate stood at 64.1% among males, compared to 12.2% among female.
The percentage of permanent employees in the public sector and public businesses stood at 98.3%, with government employees reaching the highest percentage at 95.0%. The lowest percentage for permanent employees in the private sector (outside establishments) reached 23.9%.
The availability of social and health protections for employees has had a great impact on employees’ feelings of stability and security, CAPMAS noted.
The percentage of employee participation in social insurance reached 45.2% of the total number of paid employees, with this percentage increasing to 71.2% for females, compared to 40.8% for males.
The percentage of employees participating in Egypt’s social insurance scheme in the government sector reached 97.0% of total paid employees, with 91.7% of public business sector employees taking part.
The lowest percentage of involvement in the social insurance scheme was in the private sector, particularly among those working outside establishments, accounting for 9.8 % of total paid employees.
The percentage of paid employee participation in health insurance reached 39.3%, with this percentage increasing to 68.5% for females, compared to 34.4% for males.
The percentage of government sector employee participation in health insurance reached 96.6% of total paid employees, followed by employees in the public/public business sectors at 90.5%. This percentage reached 25.7% between employees in private sector (inside establishments).
The lowest percentage of employee participation in health insurance was found in the private sector (outside establishments), where it reached 2.1% of total paid employees.
The main elements of decent work include the availability of a legal written contract between employee and employer. A 2019 labour force survey found that only 41.2% of employees held a legal contract. This percentage increased to 72.6% for females, compared to 35.9% for males.
A total of 99% of government sector employees held a legal contract, followed by 96.3% of employees in the public/public business sectors. In the private sector (inside establishments), only 29.3% of employees held a contract, with the lowest percentage 15 1.3% for private sector (outside establishments) employees.
The average number of weekly working hours for paid employees reached 46.3 hours according to economic activity. The average weekly working hours for males reached 47.0 hours, compared to 42.3 hours for females.
The average weekly working hours for employees in food services and accommodation was the highest, at 52.7 hours. This was followed by the 51.6 hours undertaken by employees in the wholesale and retail trade, with employees in education activities undertaking the lowest number of average weekly working hours at 39.8 hours.
In the private sector (inside establishments), the highest average weekly working hours were undertaken by investment sector employees at 50.6 hours, followed by private sector employees (inside establishments) at 50.6 hours. This was followed by public/public business sector employees at 45.0 hours. Government sector employees undertook the lowest average weekly working hours of 41.7 hours.